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Levoča is a town in northeastern Slovakia, located in the Prešov region. Since 2009, it has been listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Levoča originated from two original Slavic settlements, which were probably destroyed by the Tatars in 1241. The oldest written document, in which the name Levoča is first mentioned as "Leucha", is Belu IV. from 1249. In 1271 Levoča became the capital of the Spišské Sasov community. In 1317 it is explicitly mentioned as the royal city.
Its development was greatly helped by the privilege of the stock law granted to Levoča by Karol Roberto in 1321. This privilege forced foreign buyers to stay in the city for 15 days and offer their goods for sale. King Zigmund liberated the 1402 Leo's merchants from the right of the warehouse of other cities in 1411, and in 1411 he extended Leo's right of warehouse to domestic buyers. In 1419 the Levočany were exempted from the payment of thirties in the whole of Hungary. This opened up unusual opportunities for free trade.
The favorable development of the city peaked at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries and made possible the creation of artistic treasures such as the work of Master Pavel from Levoča in the Temple of Sts. James. The promising development of the city was interrupted in the 16th century by a massive fire and in the 17th century by the anti-Habsburg uprising. Nevertheless, Levoča remained the center of Spiš during this period, and in the 19th century became the center of the Slovak national movement.
The famous Levoča lyceum was founded here, 1844, after the demise of Ľudovít Štúr from the department, his pupils from Bratislava headed by Jank Francis. Of the significant Slovak poets and national actors who studied or worked in Levoca, it is worth mentioning John Botta, Jan Kral, Ľudovít Kubáni, Pavel Dobšinský, dr. Vavra Srobar, Alberta Škarvan and others.
Basilica of St. Jacob
The Basilica of St. Jacob is a Gothic sacral building in the district of Levoča in the Prešov region. Together with the nearby Renaissance Town Hall, the Master Square is dominated by Pavel. It is the parish church of the Roman Catholic parish in Leo. He is the Apostle of St. John. To Jacob the elder.
It is the largest sacred building on Spiš and the second largest in Slovakia (after the košický House of Holy Elizabeth). Its valuable interior equipment (a collection of Gothic wing altars, precious furniture, several unique works of art) are among the most valuable historical monuments in our country. The proof of this is not only the extraordinary visit to the temple, but also the fact that even thanks to it, Levoča was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2009 as part of the Levoča Settlement, the Spiš Castle and the surrounding monuments.
St. Jacob's Temple in Levoča abounds with the riches of its precious altars. In addition to the most famous and most famous altar, there are other rarely lateral altars, representing their Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque styles. Most of the altars of the Renaissance period are represented. The oldest of the altars originated in a local resin workshop in the city before the arrival of Master Paul.
According to historical records, it is evident that the original number of altars, as it existed in the Middle Ages, did not survive in the Lesser Temple. Some of the original ones - the altars of St. Barbora, St. Lawrence, the Holy Cross, and others - have been destroyed during the anti-reformist struggles, or later replaced by newer ones. Nevertheless, the composition of the temple altars, both historical and artistic, belongs to top collections and is the right choice among the most precious monuments of its kind in Europe.
When viewing the right (south) ship the church in the direction from the entrance in the underworld, the first altar of the holy Elizabeth is placed in a chapel called the Baptism. Other altars in this ship are at its end in order - the altar of Christmas Eve, the altar of two Mary (on the side wall of the ship), the altar of Vir Dolorum, the altar of four saints Jánov (at the front wall), the altar of St. Anne, the altar of Saint Catherine of Alexandria and the altar of St. Michael the Archangel (at the front supporting pillars).
Historic Town Hall
The architecturally most typical buildings of the Lesser Town Square include, James, the City Hall. The city council decided not only about the fate of its inhabitants, but also about the fate of the whole area. Exhibition areas have witnessed many important decisions and meetings during the centuries. The building was probably built around the middle of the 15th century and has undergone many modifications until today, which is the result of the reconstruction in the years 1893-95. The exposition in the town hall is devoted to the history of Levoča - its origins, development, the time of the flowering and the present. Works of historical and artistic - historical character are combined with demonstrations of rich guild production. In 2001, a long-term ethnographic exhibition entitled "Beauty of Yarn Woven" was opened, featuring folk textiles and prayer beads on Spiš. Still exposure areas are complemented by a showroom for thematic and occasional exhibitions. In 2000, the exhibition spaces were enriched with the "Small Exhibition Hall", where the exhibitions are of study and chamber character, with untraditional access to the exhibited works. The historic town hall is one of the most visited expositions in Levoča. It is interesting not only in terms of historical architectural, but also as a museum exposition. It is a place where the audience meets with interesting people not only for the opening of exhibitions but also for concerts or professional lectures from the successful "Glances to the Past" cycle. with an untraditional approach to exhibited works. The historic town hall is one of the most visited expositions in Levoča. It is interesting not only in terms of historical architectural, but also as a museum exposition. It is a place where the audience meets with interesting people not only for the opening of exhibitions but also for concerts or professional lectures from the successful "Glances to the Past" cycle. with an untraditional approach to exhibited works. The historic town hall is one of the most visited expositions in Levoča. It is interesting not only in terms of historical architectural, but also as a museum exposition. It is a place where the audience meets with interesting people not only for the opening of exhibitions but also for concerts or professional lectures from the successful "Glances to the Past" cycle.
In the southern part of the square there is a Greek-shaped building with a huge dome. The Evangelical Church has a classicist style and was built by architect Anton Povolný in the years 1825-1837. Inside, there are three emphores on which there is an organ, archive, and a valuable library. There is a precious baroque wooden cross in the church and another forged cross. The famous painter of Lausanne Jozef Czauczik painted a large altar painting, representing Christ walking by sea.